Sunday, April 11, 2021



243. Definitions.-

243A. Gram Sabha.- A Gram Sabha may exercise such powers & perform such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

243B. Constitution of Panchayats.- (1) There shall be constituted in every State, Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels in accordance with the provisions of this Part.
Panchayats at the intermediate level may not be constituted in a State having a population not exceeding 20 lakhs.

243C. Composition of Panchayats.- (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, the Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the composition of Panchayats:
(2) All the seats in a Panchayat shall be filled by persons chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Panchayat area and; for this purpose, each Panchayat area shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it shall, so far as practicable, be the same throughout the Panchayat area.

(3) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide for the re-presentation-
(a) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the village level, in the Panchayats at the intermediate level or, in the case of a State not having Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level;

(b) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level;

(c) of the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly a Panchayat area at a level other than the village level, in such Panchayat;

(d) of the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative Council of the State, where they are registered as electors within-

(i) a Panchayat area at the intermediate level, in Panchayat at the intermediate level;

(ii) a Panchayat area at the district level, in Panchayat at the district level.

(4) The Chairperson of a Panchayat and other members of a Panchayat whether or not chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Panchayat area shall have the right to vote in the meetings of the Panchayats.

(5) The Chairperson of -
(a) a Panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide; and
(b) a Panchayat at the intermediate level or district level shall be elected by, and from amongst, the elected members thereof.

243D. Reservation of seats.- (1) Seats shall be reserved for-
(a) the Scheduled Castes
(b) the Scheduled Tribes,
in every Panchayat and the number of seats of reserved shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in that Panchayat as the population of the Scheduled Castes in that Panchayat area or of the Scheduled Tribes in that Panchayat area bears to the total population of that area and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat.

(2) Not less than one-third of the total number of seats reserved under clause (1) shall be reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes or, as the case may be, the Scheduled Tribes.

(3) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes)of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat.

(4) The offices of the Chairpersons in the Panchayats at the village or any other level shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and women in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide:

Provided that the number of offices of Chairpersons reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the Panchayats at each level in any State shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of such offices in the Panchayats at each level as the population of the Scheduled Castes in the State or of the Scheduled Tribes in the State bears to the total population of the State:

Provided further that not less than one-third of the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at each level shall be reserved for women:

Provided also that the number of offices reserved under this clause shall be allotted by rotation to different Panchayats at each level.

(5) The reservation of seats under clauses (1) and (2) and the reservation of offices of Chairpersons (other than the reservation for women) under clause (4) shall cease to have effect on the expiration of the period specified in article 334.

(6) Nothing in this Part shall prevent the Legislature of a State from making any provision for reservation of seats in any Panchayat or offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at any level in favour of backward class of citizens.

243E. Duration of Panchayats, etc.- (1) Every Panchayat, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer.

(2) No amendment of any law for the time being in force shall have the effect of causing dissolution of a Panchayat at any level, which is functioning immediately before such amendment, till the expiration of its duration specified in clause (1).

(3) An election to constitute a Panchayat shall be completed-

(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);

(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:

Provided that where the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued is less than six months, it shall not be necessary to hold any election under this clause for constituting the Panchayat for such period.

(4) A Panchayat constituted upon the dissolution of a Panchayat before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued under clause (1) had it not been so dissolved.

243F. Disqualifications for membership.-(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of a Panchayat-

(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:

Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years;

(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.

(2) If any question arises as to whether a member of a Panchayat has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause(1), the question shall be referred for the decision of such authority and in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.- Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to-

(a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;

(b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.

243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.-The Legislature of a State may, by law,-

(a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes ,duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits;

(b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits;

(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State; and

(d) provide for Constitution of such Funds for crediting all money received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such moneys therefrom,

as may be specified in the law.

243-I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.-(1) The Governor of a State shall, as soon as may be within one year from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992, and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year, constitute a Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendations to the Governor as to-

(a) the principles which should govern-
(i) the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the netproceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State,which may be divided between them under this Part and the allocationbetween the Panchayats at all levels of their respective shares ofsuch proceeds;

(ii) the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which maybe assigned to, or appropriated by, the Panchayat;

(iii) the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fundof the State;

(b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of thePanchayats;

(c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by theGovernor in the interests of sound finance of the Panchayats.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide for thecomposition of the commission, the qualifications which shall berequisite for appointment as members thereof and the manner in whichthey shall be selected.

(3) The Commission shall determine their procedure and shall have suchpowers in the performance of their functions as the Legislature of theState may, by law, confer on them.

(4) The Governor shall cause every recommendation made by the Commission under this article together with an explanatory memorandumas to the action taken thereon to be laid before the Legislature of the State.

243J. Audit of accounts of Panchayats.- The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats and the auditing of such accounts.

243K. Elections to the Panchayats.-(1) The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the Panchayats shall be vested in a State Election Commission consisting of a State Election Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of a State, the conditions of service and tenure of office of the State Election Commissioner shall be such as the Governor may by rule determine:

Provided that the State Election Commissioner shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of a High Court and the conditions of service of the State Election Commissioner shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

(3) The Governor of a State shall, when so requested by the State Election Commission, make available to the State Election Commission such staff as may be necessary for the discharge of the functions conferred on the State Election Commission by clause (1).

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to all matters relating to, or in connection with, elections to the Panchayats.

243L. Application to Union territories.-The provisions of this Part shall apply to the Union territories and shall, in their application to a Union territory, have effect as if the references to the Governor of a State were references to the Administrator of the Union territory appointed under article 239 and references to the Legislature or the Legislative Assembly of a State were references, in relation to a Union territory having a Legislative Assembly, to that Legislative Assembly:
Provided that the President may, by public notification, direct that the provisions of this Part shall apply to any Union territory or part there of subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification.

243M. Part not to apply to certain areas.-(1) Nothing in this Part shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in clause (2), of article 244.

(2) Nothing in this Part shall apply to-

(a) the States of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram;

(b) the Hill Areas in the State of Manipur for which District Councilsexist under any law for the time being in force.

(3) Nothing in this Part-

(a) relating to Panchayats at the district level shall apply to thehill areas of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengalfor which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists under any law for thetime being in force;

(b) shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of theDarjeeling Gorkha Hill Council constituted under such law.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,-

(a) the Legislature of a State referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause(2) may, by law, extend this Part to that State, except the areas, if any, referred to in clause (1), if the Legislative Assembly of that State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting;

(b) Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.-Notwithstanding anything in this Part, any provision of any law relating to Panchayats in force in a State immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992, which is inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall continue to be in force until amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority or until the expiration of one year from such commencement, whichever is earlier:

Provided that all the Panchayats existing immediately before such commencement shall continue till the expiration of their duration, unless sooner dissolved by a resolution passed to that effect by the Legislative Assembly of that State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, by each House of the Legislature of that State.

243-O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.-Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,-

(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies, madeor purporting to be made under article 243K, shall not be called in question in any court;

(b) no election to any Panchayat shall be called in question except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner asis provided for by or under any law made by the Legislature of a State.'.

Constitution, after sub-clause (b), the following sub-clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(bb) the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the Panchayats in the State on the basis of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the State;".

11th Schedule was added:-
(Article 243G)

1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, landconsolidation and soil conservation.
3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.
4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.
5. Fisheries.
6. Social forestry and farm forestry.
7. Minor forest produce.
8. Small scale industries, including food processing industries.
9. Khadi, village and cottage industries.
10. Rural housing.
11. Drinking water.
12. Fuel and fodder.
13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means ofcommunication.
14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity.
15. Non-conventional energy sources.
16. Poverty alleviation programme.
17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.
18. Technical training and vocational education.
19. Adult and non-formal education.
20. Libraries.
21. Cultural activities.
22. Markets and fairs.
23. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary healthcentres and dispensaries.
24. Family welfare.
25. Women and child development.
26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentallyretarded.
27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of theScheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
28. Public distribution system.
29. Maintenance of community assets.".

Thursday, December 24, 2020

Branches of Science

Branch          Related study

Aerodynamics The study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created

Aeronautics Science of flight of airplanes.

Agronomy Science dealing with crop plant.

Anatomy The study of the structure and organization of living things

Angiology Deals with the study of blood vascular system.

Anthology Study of flower.

Anthropology The study of human cultures both past and present. Study of apes and man.

Apiculture Honey industries (Bee Keeping).

Araneology Study of spiders.

Archaeology The study of the material remains of cultures

Astronomy The study of celestial objects in the universe. Study of heavenly bodies.

Astrophysics The study of the physics of the universe

Bacteriology The study of bacteria in relation to disease

Batracology Study of frogs.

Biochemistry The study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms

Biology The science that studies living organisms

Biophysics The application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology

Biotechnology Deals with the use of micro-organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs; vaccines; hormones, etc. on a large scale.

Botany The scientific study of plant life

Cardiology Study of heart.

Chemical Engineering The application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms

Chemistry The science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself

Climatology The study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes

Computer Science The systematic study of computing systems and computation

Craniology Study of skulls.

Cryogenics Study concerning with the application and uses of very low temperature.

Cryptography Study of secret writing.

Cytology Study of cells.

Dermatology Study of skin.

Ecology The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment

Electronics Science and technology of electronic phenomena

Engineering The practical application of science to commerce or industry

Entomology The study of insects

Environmental Science The science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment

Etiology Study of cause of insects.

Eugenics Study of improvment of human race by applying laws of heredity. it is related with future generations.

Evolution Deals with the study of origin of new from old.

Exbiology Deals with life or possibilities of life beyond the earth.

Floriculture Study of flower yielding plants.

Forestry The science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources

Genetics The science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms

Geology The Study of science of the earth, its structure, and history

Gerontology study of growing old.

Gynaecology Study of female reproductive organs.

Haematology Study of blood.

Hepatology Study of liver.

Horticulture Study of garden cultivation.

Iconography Teachings by pictures and models.

Immunology Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection.

Jurisprudence Science of law.

Kalology Study of human beauty.

Lexicography Compiling of dictionary.

Marine Biology The study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems

Mathematics A science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

Medicine The science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease

Meteorology Study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting

Microbiology The study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes

Mineralogy The study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals

Molecular Biology The study of biology at a molecular level

Mycology Study of fungi.

Myology Study of muscles.

Nephrology Study of kidneys.

Neurology The branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders

Nuclear Physics The branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom

Numismatics Study of coins and medals.

Obstetrics Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy.

Oceanography Study of the earth’s oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes

Omithology Study of birds.

Oneirology Study of dreams.

Ophthalmology Study of eyes .

Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds

Ornithology The study of birds

Osteology Study of bones.

Paleontology The study of life-forms existing in former geological time periods

Pathology Study of disease causing organisms.

Pedology Stydy of soils.

Petrology The geological and chemical study of rocks

Philately Stamp collecting.

Philology Study of languages.

Phonetics Concerning the sounds of a language.

Phycology Study of algae.

Physics The study of the behavior and properties of matter

Physiography Natural phenomenon.

Physiology The study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms

Pisciculture Study of fish.

Pomology Study of fruits.

Psychology Study of the mind and behaviour

Radiology The branch of medicine dealing with the applications of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes

Seismology The study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the earth

Sericulture Silk industry(culture of silk moth and pupa).

Serpentology Study of snakes.

Taxonomy The science of classification of animals and plants

Telepathy Communication between two minds at a distance with the help of emotions, thoughts and feelings.

Thermodynamics The physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes

Toxicology The study of poisons and the effects of poisoning

Virology Study of virus.

Zoology The study of animals

Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Suspension of an MP and Revocation of a MP's suspension in India

1.What is the reason for suspending an MP in the Lok Sabha?

A. The general principle is that it is the role and duty of the Speaker of Lok Sabha to maintain order so that the House can function smoothly. This is a daunting task even at the best of times.

B. In order to ensure that proceedings are conducted in the proper manner, the Speaker is empowered to force a Member to withdraw from the House (for the remaining part of the day), or to place him/her under suspension.

2.What are the rules under which the Speaker acts?

A. Rule Number 373 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business says: “The Speaker, if is of the opinion that the conduct of any Member is grossly disorderly, may direct such Member to withdraw immediately from the House for the remainder of the day’s sitting.”

B. To deal with more recalcitrant Members, the Speaker may take recourse to Rules 374 and 374A of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business.

Rule Number 374 is invoked by Speaker for suspending the member from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session in the event of disregarding the authority of the Chair or abusing the rules of the House by persistently and wilfully obstructing the business by that member.

Rule Number 374A is invoked by Speaker for automatic suspension of member of the House – for five consecutive sittings or the remainder of the session, whichever is less in the event of grave disorder occasioned by a Member.

What is the procedure for revocation of a Member’s suspension?

A. While the Speaker is empowered to place a Member under suspension, the authority for revocation of this order is not vested in him. It is for the House, if it so desires, to resolve on a motion to revoke the suspension.

What happens in Rajya Sabha?

A. Like the Speaker in Lok Sabha, the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is empowered under Rule Number 255 of its Rule Book to “direct any Member whose conduct is in his opinion grossly disorderly to withdraw immediately” from the House for remainder of the day.

B. Unlike the Speaker, however, the Rajya Sabha Chairman does not have the power to suspend a Member.

C.The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha may “name a Member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing” business of the house. In such situation, the Rajya Sabha may adopt a motion suspending the Member (who disregarded the authority of the Chair or abused the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing business) from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session.

D.The Rajya Sabha may, however, by another motion, terminate the suspension.

📝Thus, Chairman of Rajya Sabha does neither have the power of suspension nor have the power of revocation of it.

Saturday, September 5, 2020

Niti Aayog has released draft Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture(DEPA)

 NITI Aayog has released draft Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA) which aims to promote greater user control on data sharing.

Imp. Points-


  1. DEPA will be empowering individuals with control over their personal data, by operationalising a regulatory, institutional, and technology design for secure data sharing.
  2. DEPA is designed as an evolvable and agile framework for good data governance.
  3. DEPA empowers people to seamlessly and securely access their data and share it with third party institutions.
  4. The consent given under DEPA will be free, informed, specific, clear, and revocable.

Consent Managers:

 DEPA’s Institutional Architecture will involve the creation of new market players known as User Consent Managers. These will ensure that individuals can provide consent as per an innovative digital standard for every data shared. These Consent Managers will also work to protect data rights.

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued a Master Directive creating Consent Managers in the financial sector to be known as Account Aggregators (AAs). A non-profit collective or alliance of these players is created called the DigiSahamati Foundation.

Open APIs: 

Open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) enable seamless and encrypted flow of data between data providers and data users through a consent manager.


 RBI, SEBI, IRDAI, PFRDA and the Ministry of Finance will implement this model. This regulatory foundation is also expected to evolve with time (eg. with the forthcoming Data Protection Authority envisaged under Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019).


  •  Regulatory direction on data privacy, protection, consent, and the new financial institutions required for DEPA’s application in the financial sector was provided through
  • Supreme Court Judgement on the fundamental Right to Privacy in 2017.
  • Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP), 2019.
  • Justice Srikrishna Committee Report, 2018.
  • RBI Master Direction on NBFC-Account Aggregators, 2016 (for the financial sector).
  • Recently, a government committee headed by Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan has suggested that non-personal data generated in India be allowed to be harnessed by various domestic companies and entities.


Financial sector:

  • Using DEPA, individuals and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) can use their digital footprints to access not just affordable loans, but also insurance, savings, and better financial management products.
  • The framework is expected to become functional for the financial sector starting fall 2020.
  • It will help in greater financial inclusion and economic growth.
  • Flow based lending: If portability and control of data could allow an MSME owner to digitally share proof of the business’ regular tax (GST) payments or receivables invoices easily, a bank could design and offer working capital loans based on demonstrated ability to repay (known as flow based lending) rather than only offering bank loans backed by assets or collateral.

Telecom Sector:

 DEPA is also being launched in the telecom sector following a Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) consultation report on privacy released in July 2018.

Government Departments: 

The first major government department to become a Government Information Provider will be Goods and Services Tax (GST).

In future, departments with data on individuals and MSMEs could adopt the specifications to improve the ease of doing business or create greater data portability of individual education, jobs, or transaction data.


National Health Authority which has been tasked with implementing the National Digital Health Mission, is piloting the DEPA architecture for healthcare data.


The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is encouraging adoption of a digital skill credential that could be used to address low data portability in employment by sharing verified information on work experience or educational training.


  1. Opening up an API-based data sharing framework would bring significant innovation by new fintech entities.
  2. This architecture replaces costly and cumbersome data access and sharing practices that disempower individuals, such as physical submission, username/password sharing, and terms and conditions forms providing blanket consent etc.
  3. Individuals and small firms do not benefit from individual’s data right now. DEPA will provide individuals and small businesses with the practical means to access, control, and selectively share personal data that they have stored across multiple institutional datasets – to maximise the benefits of data sharing for individual empowerment whilst minimising privacy risks and data misuse.
  4. It will also enable better personal financial management services, wealth management, robo advisory, or different types of lending, insurance, and investment use cases and products that one may not be able to foresee today.
Source -Indian Express

Friday, September 4, 2020

Mission Karmayogi

The Union Cabinet has approved ‘Mission Karmayogi’ - the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB).

It is meant to be a comprehensive post-recruitment reform of the Centre’s human resource development. 

Imp. Points-

Aim & Objective:-

1.To build a future-ready civil service with the right attitude, skills and knowledge, aligned to the vision of New India.

2.To prepare Indian civil servants for the future by making them more creative, constructive, imaginative, proactive, innovative, progressive, professional, energetic, transparent, and technology-enabled.

3.Comprehensive reform of the capacity building at the individual, institutional and process levels for efficient public service delivery.

Reason for Mission Karmayogi:

1.At present bureaucracy is facing challenges like- Rule orientation, political interference, inefficiency with promotions, and generalist and specialist conflict.

2.To change the status quo of civil services and bring about the long pending civil services reforms.

3.The capacity of Civil Services plays a vital role in rendering a wide variety of services, implementing welfare programs and performing core governance functions.

Features of the scheme:-

1.Tech-Aided: The capacity building will be delivered through iGOT Karmayogi digital platform, with content drawn from global best practices.

2.The platform will act as a launchpad for the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB).

3.Coverage: The scheme will cover 46 lakh central government employees, at all levels, and involve an outlay of Rs. 510 crores over a five-year period.

4.Shift from Rules to Roles: The programme will support a transition from “rules-based to roles-based” Human Resource Management (HRM) so that work allocations can be done by matching an official’s competencies to the requirements of the post.

5.Apart from domain knowledge training, the scheme will focus on “functional and behavioural competencies” as well, and also includes a monitoring framework for performance evaluations.

6.Integrated Initiative: Eventually, service matters such as confirmation after probation period, deployment, work assignments and notification of vacancies will all be integrated into the proposed framework.

Governance Structure:

  • Human Resource Council: NPCSCB will be governed by the Prime Minister’s Human Resource Council, which will also include state Chief Ministers, Union Cabinet ministers, and experts.
  • This council will approve and review civil service capacity building programmes.
  • Cabinet Secretary Coordination Unit: There will be a Cabinet Secretary Coordination Unit comprising select secretaries and cadre controlling authorities.
  • Capacity Building Commission: Also, there will be a Capacity Building Commission, which will include experts in related fields and global professionals. This commission will prepare and monitor annual capacity building plans and audit human resources available in the government.
  • Special Purpose Vehicle: Finally, there will be a wholly-owned Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), which will govern the iGOT-Karmayogi platform.
  • It will be set up under Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • The SPV will be a “not-for-profit” company and will own and manage the iGOT-Karmayogi platform.
  • The SPV will create and operationalize the content, market place and manage key business services of the iGOT-Karmayogi platform, relating to content validation, independent proctored assessments and telemetry data availability.
  • The SPV will own all Intellectual Property Rights on behalf of the Government of India.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation Framework: An appropriate monitoring and evaluation framework will also be put in place for performance evaluation of all users of the iGOT-Karmayogi platform so as to generate a dashboard view of Key Performance Indicators.

To conclude, the ultimate aim of Mission Karmayogi is to ensure “Ease of Living” for the common man, “Ease of Doing Business” and Citizen-Centricity that is reducing the gap between the government and the citizens. This can only be achieved by regular and constructive involvement by the government and civil servants.

Source IE

Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Spot Robot

Researchers from Boston Dynamics, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT - USA) have developed a robot, called ‘Spot’.

They have planned to use it for patients with Covid-19 symptoms.

Important points:-

1.The robot is controlled by a handheld device.

2.It can walk on four legs, similarly to a dog, climbs stairs and can traverse rough terrain with ease and small enough to be used indoors.

3.It can measure skin temperature, breathing rate, pulse rate, and blood oxygen saturation in healthy patients, from 2 metres away.

4.It has four cameras — one infrared, three monochrome.


  • Body Temperature: The infrared camera measures skin temperature on the face.
  • An algorithm then correlates the facial skin temperature with core body temperature.
  • Breathing Rate: When a patient wearing a mask breathes, their breath changes the temperature of the mask.
  • The infrared camera measures this temperature change, enabling researchers to calculate the breathing rate.
  • Pulse Rate & Oxygen Level: When haemoglobin binds to oxygen and flows through blood vessels, it results in slight changes in colour.
  • These changes are measured with the help of the three monochrome cameras, which filter lights of three different wavelengths.
  • Using these measurements, the algorithm calculates pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation.

Benefits of robot:

1.The robot can be deployed in areas where suspected cases of Covid-19 assemble. Healthcare workers can avoid exposing themselves to risk, by manoeuvring the robot to wherever patients are sitting.

2.The robot can also carry a tablet that allows doctors to ask patients about their symptoms without being in the same room.

Source: Indian Express

Monday, August 31, 2020

CMERI develops World’s Largest Solar Tree

 Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute(CMERI) , which is the apex R&D institute for mechanical engineering under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed the World's largest Solar Tree. The tree is installed in residential colony of CMERI.

Important points :-

1.Installed capacity of the Solar Tree - greater than 11.5 kWp.

2.Annual capacity to generate - 12,000 -14,000 units.

3.It has been designed in a manner to ensure maximum exposure of each Solar PV Panel to Sunlight and also creation of the least amount of shadow area beneath.

4.No. of Solar PV Panels - 35

5.Capacity of each solar panel - 330 wp

6. Inclination of the arms holding the Solar PV Panels are flexible and can be adjusted according to requirement.

7.Real time energy data can be monitored.

8. The Solar Trees were designed in a manner to ensure minimum shadow area.

9.These Solar Trees are available for widespread usage in Agricultural activities such as High Capacity Pumps, e-Tractors and e-Power Tillers.

These Solar Trees can be aligned with Agriculture for substituting price-volatile fossil fuels. Each Solar tree has the potential to save 10-12 tons of COemissions being released into the atmosphere as Greenhouse Gases when compared with fossil fuel fired energy generation.The surplus generated power can be fed into an Energy Grid.

IOT based features of Solar Tree:-

1. Round the-clock CCTV surveillance in agricultural fields.

2.Real-time humidity.

3.Wind speed.

4.Rainfall prediction and soil analytics sensors.

Cost of Solar Tree is  Rs 7.5 lakhs and the interested MSMEs can align their Business Model with the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha even Utthan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) Scheme for farmers, for developing a Renewable Energy based Energy Grid.

The CSIR-CMERI developed solar powered e-Suvidha Kiosks may also be connected to the Solar Trees for real-time access to the vast majority of agricultural database as well as to the eNAM i.e. National Agricultural MarketPlace for instant and real-time access to an unified online market.This Solar Tree is a Quantum Leap towards making an Energy Reliant and Carbon Negative India.

Source -PIB

Sunday, August 30, 2020

“Chunauti”- Next Generation Start-up Challenge Contest


Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has launched “Chunauti”- Next Generation Startup Challenge Contest.


  1. To further boost startups and software products with special focus on Tier-II towns of India.
  2. To identify around 300 startups working in identified areas and provide them seed fund of upto Rs. 25 Lakh and other facilities.

Under this challenge the Ministry of Electronics and IT will invite startups in the following areas of work:

  1. Edu-Tech, Agri-Tech & Fin-Tech Solutions for masses.
  2. Supply Chain, Logistics & Transportation Management.
  3. Infrastructure & Remote monitoring.
  4. Medical Healthcare, Diagnostic, Preventive & Psychological Care.
  5. Jobs & Skilling, Linguistic tools & technologies.

Benefits for the selected startups:

  • The startups selected will be provided various support from the Government through Software Technology Parks of India centers across India.
  • They will get incubation facilities, mentorship, security testing facilities, access to venture capitalist funding, industry connect as well as advisories in legal, Human Resource (HR), IPR and Patent matters.
  • Besides seed fund of upto Rs. 25 Lakh, the startups will also be provided cloud credits from leading cloud service providers.
  • Each intern (start-up under pre-incubation) will be paid Rs. 10,000/- per month upto a period of 6 months.

Source -PIB 

Thursday, August 27, 2020

RBI Annual Report (2019-20)

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) released its Annual Report for 2019-20 on 25 August,2020. It is Report of the Central Board of Directors on the working of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the year ended June 30, 2020 submitted to the Central Government in terms of Section 53(2) of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934

  • In the report, RBI projected that India’s growth at  -4.5% for 2020-21. It will be (-) 3.7% in the single hit scenario and (-) 7.3% in the double hit scenario in FY2020-21.
  • On the global front, the growth is projected at (-) 6.0% in the single hit scenario and (-) 7.6% in the double hit scenario in FY20-21.

1.Balance Sheet of RBI:-

A.The RBI’s balance sheet increased by 30%, or Rs 12,31,888 crore, from Rs 41,02,905 crore to Rs 53,34,793 crore. 

B.The gross total income for the year 2019-20 declined by 29% to Rs 149,672 crore as compared to Rs 193,036 crore in 2018-19.

C.Its expenditure for the year 2019-20 is Rs 92,540 crore compared to an expenditure of Rs 17,045 crore in 2018-19. 

D.The year ended with an overall surplus of Rs 57,128 billion which was transferred to the government.

E.On the liability side, the rise was due to an increase in notes issued, other liabilities and provisions and deposits. 

F.Domestic assets constituted 28.75% while foreign currency assets and gold (including gold deposit and gold held in India) constituted 71.25% of total assets as of June 2020 as against 28.03% and 71.97% respectively, as of June 2019.

2.Bank frauds more than double in FY20 to Rs 1.85 trillion

As per the RBI annual report FY19-20, bank frauds of Rs100,000 and above have more than doubled in value to Rs 1.85 trillion in FY20, with the number of such cases increasing 28% in the same period.

  • The top 50 credit-related frauds constituted 76% of the total amount reported as frauds.
  • Public sector banks (PSBs) accounted for 80% of the Rs 1.85 trillion reported as frauds in FY20, followed by private sector banks at 18%. 
  • Frauds in loans constituted 98% of the total frauds or at Rs 1.82 trillion.
  • The aggregate amount of money involved in frauds in April-June 2020 stood at Rs28,843 crore, as against Rs 42,228 crore in the April-June of 2019.

3.Setting up GST Council type authorities for land, labour, power :-

The Reserve Bank suggested for setting up of GST (Goods and Services Tax) Council type apex authorities for land, labour and power to drive structural reforms and expedite implementation of national infrastructure pipeline.

4.RBI to dissolve Banking Codes and Standards Board of India:-

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has decided to dissolve the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI) which was set up in February 2006 as an independent and autonomous body for formulating codes of conduct to be adopted by banks voluntarily for ensuring fair treatment of customers.

  • BCSBI, in collaboration with the Indian Banks’ Association (IBA), has evolved two codes – Code of Bank’s Commitment to Customers and the Code of Bank’s Commitment to Micro and Small Enterprises.
  • The nodal department for BCSBI is CEPD (Consumer Education and Protection Department).

5.Integration of three existing Ombudsman schemes into one:-

Meanwhile, the RBI will be implementing the recommendations of an in-house committee for integrating three existing Ombudsman schemes – Banking Ombudsman Scheme, 2006; Ombudsman Scheme for NBFCs, 2018; and Ombudsman Scheme for Digital Transactions, 2019 – into one scheme.

Important points:

  • Currency notes of Rs 2,000 denomination were not printed in 2019-20. The number of Rs 2,000 currency notes in circulation has come down from 33,632 lakh pieces at end-March 2018 to 32,910 lakh pieces at end-March 2019 and further to 27,398 lakh pieces at end-March 2020.
  • The circulation of currency notes of denomination of Rs 500 and Rs 200 has gone up substantially, both in terms of volume and value over the three years beginning 2018.

  • Moratoriums on loan instalments, deferment of interest payments and restructuring may have implications for the financial health of banks, unless they are closely monitored and judiciously used.
  • These regulatory initiatives were taken by RBI to reduce the economic impact of Covid-19 pandemic. These measures have averted a big spike in Non Performing Assets (NPAs) till now.
    • Notably, the share of Rs 500 notes in the total value of currency has raised maximum from 51% in 2018-19 to 60.8% in 2019-20.
    • Government consumption will have to fuel demand till the economy comes out of the COVID-19 shock and regains pre-COVID-19 momentum.

    Tuesday, August 25, 2020

    India’s longest river ropeway inaugurated in Assam

    India's longest passenger ropeway over the Brahmaputra river was inaugurated in Guwahati city by state finance minister Dr Himanta Biswa Sarma on 24 August ,2020.

    Imp. Points:-

    1.Ropeway was built at a cost of Rs. 56 crore. 

    2.It extends from Central to Northern Guwahati. It takes eight minutes to traverse the entire length of the ropeway.

    3.Length of ropeway - 1.82 km.

    4.It passes over the mid-river Peacock Island that houses Umananda, a medieval Shiva temple.

    5.The ropeway is a twin track, single haul, bi-cable, jig-back system with two cabins. Each cabin, with full safety measures, can carry 32 people (30 passengers and two operators) at a time, with an overall capacity of 250 persons per hour.

    6.According to the government, this is one of the most advanced & longest river crossing Aerial Tramway systems in India.

    Need :

    1.Thousands of people commute every day between the capital city of Guwahati and the town of North Guwahati, where IIT Guwahati is located.Other travel options between the two banks are by ferry (30 minutes or more, depending on current and season) or by road through a bridge that usually takes over an hour in the traffic.


    1.Overlooking the beautiful Brahmaputra river, the ropeway ride will facilitate the passengers to look out for the Urvashi island and catch a glimpse of the Umananda temple which was built by Ahom King Gadadhar Singha.

    2.Tourists can take the ropeway to North Guwahati and spend quality time on that side. Hospitality services will also develop on that side and thus the ropeway is expected to be an overall boost for tourism in the city.

    3.Ropeway is considered as a convenient and non-polluting means of transport, as well as a source of environmentally friendly tourism.

    4.It is ecologically sustainable as it is run by electric power protecting the beauty of the area, while simultaneously providing passengers with a comfortable and speedy means of travel.

    Source: India Today