Friday, May 7, 2021

Rankings of India in various Indices

 1.Henley Passport Index 2021

Released by :Henley &Partners
India's rank - 85
1st rank - Japan

2.World Happiness Index 2021

Released by : UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network
India's rank - 139
1st rank - Finland

3.Global Climate Risk Index 2021

Released by : German Watch
India's rank - 7
1st position - Mozambique

4.Global Gender Gap Report 2021

Released by : World Economic Forum(WEF)
India's rank - 140
1st position - Iceland

5.Corruption Perception Index 2020

Released by : Transparency International
India's rank - 86
1st position - New Zealand & Denmark

6.Ease of Doing Business 2020

Released by : World Bank
India's rank - 63
1st position - New Zealand

7.Human Capital Index 2020

Released by : World Bank
India's rank : 116
1st position - Singapore

8.Global Talent Competitiveness Index 2020

Released by : INSEAD
India's rank - 72
1st position - Switzerland

9.Global Innovation Index 2020

Released by : World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
India's rank - 48
1st position - Switzerland

10.Global Peace Index 2020

Released by : Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP)
India's rank - 139
1st position - Iceland

11.World Press Freedom Index 2020

Released by : Reporters without Borders
India's rank - 142
1st position - Norway

12.Democracy Index 2020

Released by : The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)
India's rank - 53
1st position - Norway

13.Global Social Mobility Index 2020

Released by : World Economic Forum
India's rank - 76
1st position - Denmark

14.Human Development Index 2020

Released by : United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
India's rank - 131
1st position - Norway







Wednesday, May 5, 2021

Government Schemes by Ministry of Education (previously HRD ministry)

 1.YUKTI 2.0 

The Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched an initiative ‘YUKTI 2.0’ to help systematically assimilate technologies having commercial potential and information related to incubated startups in higher education institutions.


Key Points

  • Creation of Database: The Ministry has invited students, faculty members, startups and other stakeholders of higher education institutions to register on the YUKTI portal and share their technologies and innovations.
  • 2.Padhna Likhna Abhiyan

Padhna Likhna Abhiyan will focus on the Basic Literacy component in four months cycle amongst the adults of the nation. NITI Aayog, has underlined 112 Aspirational Districts. This scheme will focus on achieving 100% or Total Literacy by 2030. The scheme will be merged with the existing schemes of the government. 

Under this scheme, massive literacy projects will be launched in the tribal and forests areas, prisons, slums, etc. with the technology as a facilitator. By driving the technology in, quality education will be imparted in the backward areas with the creation of e-materials, mobile apps and more. 

3.STARS Project

 Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States (STARS) project with a total project cost of Rs. 5,718 crore with the financial support of World Bank amounting to about Rs. 3,700 crore.
  • The STARS project would be implemented as a new Centrally Sponsored Scheme under the Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Education (MoE).
  • Aim and Focus: These are aligned with the objectives of National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 of Quality Based Learning Outcomes.

    • Strengthening the government-managed school education system that primarily caters to the educational needs of girls and students from marginalised groups.
    • Focus on initiatives of PM e-Vidya, Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Mission and National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education as part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.

4.KAPILA Caimpaign

Union Education Minister has launched the Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness Campaign (KAPILA) on the occasion of the 89th birth anniversary of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam.

  • He was born on 15th October 1931.

Key Points

  • KAPILA:

    • Under this campaign, students pursuing education in higher educational institutions will get information about the correct system of application process for patenting their invention.

      • Students in higher education institutions of the country are innovating constantly under the guidance of their teachers but they are not aware of the system of filing its patent.
    • Through this campaign, students will be able to get benefits from their inventions by patenting them.

      • For India to become a USD 5 trillion economy by 2024-25, students and scientists have to be more aware of protecting intellectual property (IP).
    • The program will facilitate the colleges and institutions to encourage more and more students to file patents and everyone engaged in research and development must apply to preserve and safeguard their inventions.

5.TULIP: The Urban Learning Internship Program

Ministry of Human Resource Development, the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs, and All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) have jointly launched an online portal called The Urban Learning Internship Program (TULIP).

Key Points

  • Aim: The program aims to provide internship opportunities to 25,000 fresh graduates in all Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and Smart Cities across the country.
  • Concept: TULIP has been conceived pursuant to the Budget 2020-21 announcement under the theme ‘Aspirational India' which laid emphasis on changing the approach of education from ‘doing by learning,’ to ‘learning by doing'.
  • Area of Work: The internship opportunities will be provided for ‘Smart City’ projects which range from positions in urban planning, water supply, waste management, slum improvement and digital governance among others.
  • Eligibility: Applicants must be Indian citizens who have completed their final year of college within the last 18 months and have a degree of B. Tech, B planning, B. Arch, BA, BSc, BCom, LLB.
  • Duration: Internship durations can range from eight weeks to one year.
  • Benefit: It would help enhance the value-to-market of India’s graduates and help create a potential talent pool in diverse fields.

    • TULIP would also benefit ULBs and smart cities. It will lead to infusion of fresh ideas and energy with engagement of youth in co-creation of solutions for solving India’s urban challenges.

6.MANODARPAN: Mental Health Initiative

Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) has launched the 'Manodarpan' initiative under Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.

It is aimed to provide psychosocial support to students, family members and teachers for their mental health and well-being during the times of Covid-19.

Key Points

  • Description: The platform includes a national toll free helpline for students of schools, universities and colleges, which will be manned by a pool of experienced counsellors, psychologists and mental health professionals.
    • It also has a website, a national database of counsellors which will host an interactive online chat platform, advisories and tips through webinars and other resources

Friday, April 16, 2021

The Municipalities

 The Municipalities(Part IX A of Constitution)

Definitions.

243P. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(a) “Committee” means a Committee constituted under article 243S;
(b) “district” means a district in a State;
(c) “Metropolitan area” means an area having a population of ten lakhs or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas, specified by the Governor by public notification to be a Metropolitan area for the purposes of this Part;
(d) “Municipal area” means the territorial area of a Municipality as is notified by the Governor;
(e) “Municipality” means an institution of self-government constituted under article 243Q;
(f) “Panchayat” means a Panchayat constituted under article 243B;
(g) “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published.

Constitution of Municipalities.

243Q. (1) There shall be constituted in every State,—
(a) a Nagar Panchayat (by whatever name called) for a transitional area, that is to say, an area in transition from a rural area to an urban area;
(b) a Municipal Council for a smaller urban area; and
(c) a Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area, in accordance with the provisions of this Part:

Provided that a Municipality under this clause may not be constituted in such urban area or part thereof as the Governor may, having regard to the size of the area and the municipal services being provided or proposed to be provided by an industrial establishment in that area and such other factors as he may deem fit, by public notification, specify to be an industrial township.

(2) In this article, “a transitional area”, “a smaller urban area” or “a larger urban area” means such area as the Governor may, having regard to the population of the area, the density of the population therein, the revenue generated for local administration, the percentage of employment in non-agricultural activities, the economic importance or such other factors as he may deem fit, specify by public notification for the purposes of this Part.

Composition of Muncipalities.

243R. (1) Save as provided in clause (2), all the seats in a Municipality shall be filled by persons chosen by direct election from the territorial constituencies in the Municipal area and for this purpose each Municipal area shall be divided into territorial constituencies to be known as wards.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide—
(a) for the representation in a Municipality of—
(i) persons having special knowledge or experience in Municipal administration;
(ii) the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly the Municipal area;
(iii) the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative Council of the State registered as electors within the Municipal area;
(iv) the Chairpersons of the Committees constituted under clause (5) of article 243S:

Provided that the persons referred to in paragraph (i) shall not have the right to vote in the meetings of the Municipality;

(b) the manner of election of the Chairperson of a Municipality.

Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.

243S. (1) There shall be constituted Wards Committees, consisting of one or more wards, within the territorial area of a Municipality having a population of three lakhs or more.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to—
(a) the composition and the territorial area of a Wards Committee;
(b) the manner in which the seats in a Wards Committee shall be filled.

(3) A member of a Municipality representing a ward within the territorial area of the Wards Committee shall be a member of that Committee.

(4) Where a Wards Committee consists of—
(a) one ward, the member representing that ward in the Municipality; or
(b) two or more wards, one of the members representing such wards in the Municipality elected by the members of the Wards Committee, shall be the Chairperson of that Committee.

(5) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to prevent the Legislature of a State from making any provision for the constitution of Committees in addition to the Wards Committees.

Reservation of seats.

243T. (1) Seats shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in every Municipality and the number of seats so reserved shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in that Municipality as the population of the Scheduled Castes in the Municipal area or of the Scheduled Tribes in the Municipal area bears to the total population of that area and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality.

(2) Not less than one-third of the total number of seats reserved under clause (1) shall be reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes or, as the case may be, the Scheduled Tribes.

(3) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Municipality shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality.

(4) The offices of Chairpersons in the Municipalities shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and women in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

(5) The reservation of seats under clauses (1) and (2) and the reservation of offices of Chairpersons (other than the reservation for women) under clause (4) shall cease to have effect on the expiration of the period specified in article 334.

(6) Nothing in this Part shall prevent the Legislature of a State from making any provision for reservation of seats in any Municipality or offices of Chairpersons in the Municipalities in favour of backward class of citizens.

Duration of Muncipalities, etc.

243U. (1) Every Municipality, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer:

Provided that a Municipality shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before its dissolution.

(2) No amendment of any law for the time being in force shall have the effect of causing dissolution of a Municipality at any level, which is functioning immediately before such amendment, till the expiration of its duration specified in clause (1).

(3) An election to constitute a Municipality shall be completed,—
(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);
(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:

Provided that where the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Municipality would have continued is less than six months, it shall not be necessary to hold any election under this clause for constituting the Municipality for such period.

(4) A Municipality constituted upon the dissolution of a Municipality before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Municipality would have continued under clause (1) had it not been so dissolved.

Disqualifications for membership.

243V. (1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of aMunicipality—
(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:

Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years;

(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.

(2) If any question arises as to whether a member of a Municipality has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause (1), the question shall be referred for the decision of such authority and in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

243W. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow—
(a) the Municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Municipalities, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to—
(i) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;
(ii) the performance of functions and the implementation of schemes as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule;
(b) the Committees with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to carry out the responsibilities conferred upon them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Twelfth Schedule.

Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.

243X. The Legislature of a State may, by law,—
(a)
 authorise a Municipality to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits;
(b) assign to a Municipality such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits;
(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Municipalities from the Consolidated Fund of the State; and
(d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Municipalities and also for the withdrawal of such moneys therefrom, as may be specified in the law.

Finance Commission.

243Y. (1) The Finance Commission constituted under article 243-I shall also review the financial position of the Municipalities and make recommendations to the Governor as to—
(a) the principles which should govern—
(i) the distribution between the State and the Municipalities of the net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, which may be divided between them under this Part and the allocation between the Municipalities at all levels of their respective shares of such proceeds;
(ii) the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees whichmay be assigned to, or appropriated by, the Municipalities;
(iii) the grants-in-aid to the Municipalities from the Consolidated Fund of the State;
(b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Municipalities;
(c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the interests of sound finance of the Municipalities.

(2) The Governor shall cause every recommendation made by the Commission under this article together with an explanatory memorandumas to the action taken thereon to be laid before the Legislature of the State.

Audit of accounts of Municipalities.

243Z. The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by the Municipalities and the auditing of such accounts.

Elections to the Municipalities.

243ZA. (1) The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the Municipalities shall be vested in the State Election Commission referred to in article 243K.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a Statemay, by law, make provision with respect to all matters relating to, or in connection with, elections to the Municipalities.

Application to Union territories.

243ZB. The provisions of this Part shall apply to the Union territories and shall, in their application to a Union territory, have effect as if the references to the Governor of a State were references to the Administrator of the Union territory appointed under article 239 and references to the Legislature or the Legislative Assembly of a State were references in relation to a Union territory having a Legislative
Assembly, to that Legislative Assembly:

Provided that the President may, by public notification, direct that the provisions of this Part shall apply to any Union territory or part thereof subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification. part not to apply to certain areas.

243ZC. (1) Nothing in this Part shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in clause (2), of article 244.

(2) Nothing in this Part shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council constituted under any law for the time being in force for the hill areas of the district of
Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

Committee for district planning.

243ZD. (1) There shall be constituted in every State at the district level a District Planning Committee to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and to prepare
a draft development plan for the district as a whole.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to—
(a) the composition of the District Planning Committees;
(b) the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled:

Provided that not less than four-fifths of the total number of members of such Committee shall beelected by, and from amongst, the elected members of the Panchayat at the district level and of the Municipalities in the district in proportion to the ratio between the population of the rural areas and of the urban areas in the district;

(c) the functions relating to district planning which may be assigned to such Committees;
(d) the manner in which the Chairpersons of such Committees shall be chosen.

(3) Every District Planning Committee shall, in preparing the draft development plan,—
(a) have regard to—
(i) matters of common interest between the Panchayats and the Municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;
(ii) the extent and type of available resources whether financial or otherwise;
(b) consult such institutions and organisations as the Governor may, by order, specify.

(4) The Chairperson of every District Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by such Committee, to the Government of the State.

Committee for Metropolitan planning.

243ZE. (1) There shall be constituted in every Metropolitan area a Metropolitan Planning Committee to prepare a draft development plan for the Metropolitan area as a whole.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to—
(a) the composition of the Metropolitan Planning Committees;
(b) the manner in which the seats in such Committees shall be filled:

Provided that not less than two-thirds of the members of such Committee shall be elected by, and from amongst, the elected members of the Municipalities and Chairpersons of the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area in proportion to the ratio between the population of the Municipalities and of the
Panchayats in that area;
(c) the representation in such Committees of the Government of India and the Government of the State and of such organisations and Institutions as may be deemed necessary for carrying out
the functions assigned to such Committees;
(d) the functions relating to planning and coordination for the Metropolitan area which may be assigned to such Committees;
(e) the manner in which the Chairpersons of such Committees shall be chosen.

(3) Every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall, in preparing the draft development plan,—
(a) have regard to—
(i) the plans prepared by the Municipalities and the Panchayats in the Metropolitan area;
(ii) matters of common interest between the Municipalities and the Panchayats, including coordinated spatial planning of the area, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation;
(iii) the overall objectives and priorities set by the Government of India and the Government of the State;
(iv) the extent and nature of investments likely to be made in the Metropolitan area by agencies of the Government of India and of the Government of the State and other available resources whether financial or otherwise;
(b) consult such institutions and organisations as the Governor may, by order, specify.

(4) The Chairperson of every Metropolitan Planning Committee shall forward the development plan, as recommended by such Committee, to the Government of the State.

Continuance of existing laws and Muncipalities.

243ZF. Notwithstanding anything in this Part, any provision of any law relating to Municipalities in force in a State immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-fourth Amendment)
Act, 1992, which is inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall continue to be in force until amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority or until the expiration of one year from such commencement, whichever is earlier:

Provided that all the Municipalities existing immediately before such commencement shall continue till the expiration of their duration, unless sooner dissolved by a resolution passed to that effect by the Legislative Assembly of that State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, by each House of the Legislature of that State.

Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

243ZG. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,—
(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies, made or purporting to be made under article 243ZA shall not be called in question in any court;
(b) no election to any Municipality shall be called in question except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner as is provided for by or under any law made by the
Legislature of a State.


"TWELFTH SCHEDULE

(Article 243W)

1. Urban planning including town planning.

2. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings.

3. Planning for economic and social development.

4. Roads and bridges.

5. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes.

6. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste manage-
ment.

7. Fire services.

8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of
ecological aspects.

9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society,
including the handicapped and mentally retarded.

10. Slum improvement and upgradation.

11. Urban poverty alleviation.

12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks,
gardens, playgrounds.

13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.

14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and
electric crematoriums.

15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.

16. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths.

17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus
stops and public conveniences.

18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.''.

Sunday, April 11, 2021

THE PANCHAYATS

 PART IX OF CONSTITUTION (Article 243 -243O) , SCHEDULE 11

243. Definitions.-

243A. Gram Sabha.- A Gram Sabha may exercise such powers & perform such functions at the village level as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.


243B. Constitution of Panchayats.- (1) There shall be constituted in every State, Panchayats at the village, intermediate and district levels in accordance with the provisions of this Part.
Panchayats at the intermediate level may not be constituted in a State having a population not exceeding 20 lakhs.

243C. Composition of Panchayats.- (1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, the Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the composition of Panchayats:
(2) All the seats in a Panchayat shall be filled by persons chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Panchayat area and; for this purpose, each Panchayat area shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it shall, so far as practicable, be the same throughout the Panchayat area.

(3) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide for the re-presentation-
(a) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the village level, in the Panchayats at the intermediate level or, in the case of a State not having Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level;

(b) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level;

(c) of the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly a Panchayat area at a level other than the village level, in such Panchayat;

(d) of the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative Council of the State, where they are registered as electors within-

(i) a Panchayat area at the intermediate level, in Panchayat at the intermediate level;

(ii) a Panchayat area at the district level, in Panchayat at the district level.

(4) The Chairperson of a Panchayat and other members of a Panchayat whether or not chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the Panchayat area shall have the right to vote in the meetings of the Panchayats.

(5) The Chairperson of -
(a) a Panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide; and
(b) a Panchayat at the intermediate level or district level shall be elected by, and from amongst, the elected members thereof.

243D. Reservation of seats.- (1) Seats shall be reserved for-
(a) the Scheduled Castes
(b) the Scheduled Tribes,
in every Panchayat and the number of seats of reserved shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in that Panchayat as the population of the Scheduled Castes in that Panchayat area or of the Scheduled Tribes in that Panchayat area bears to the total population of that area and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat.

(2) Not less than one-third of the total number of seats reserved under clause (1) shall be reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes or, as the case may be, the Scheduled Tribes.

(3) Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes)of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat shall be reserved for women and such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat.

(4) The offices of the Chairpersons in the Panchayats at the village or any other level shall be reserved for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and women in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide:

Provided that the number of offices of Chairpersons reserved for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the Panchayats at each level in any State shall bear, as nearly as may be, the same proportion to the total number of such offices in the Panchayats at each level as the population of the Scheduled Castes in the State or of the Scheduled Tribes in the State bears to the total population of the State:

Provided further that not less than one-third of the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at each level shall be reserved for women:

Provided also that the number of offices reserved under this clause shall be allotted by rotation to different Panchayats at each level.

(5) The reservation of seats under clauses (1) and (2) and the reservation of offices of Chairpersons (other than the reservation for women) under clause (4) shall cease to have effect on the expiration of the period specified in article 334.

(6) Nothing in this Part shall prevent the Legislature of a State from making any provision for reservation of seats in any Panchayat or offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at any level in favour of backward class of citizens.

243E. Duration of Panchayats, etc.- (1) Every Panchayat, unless sooner dissolved under any law for the time being in force, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer.

(2) No amendment of any law for the time being in force shall have the effect of causing dissolution of a Panchayat at any level, which is functioning immediately before such amendment, till the expiration of its duration specified in clause (1).

(3) An election to constitute a Panchayat shall be completed-

(a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1);

(b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution:

Provided that where the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued is less than six months, it shall not be necessary to hold any election under this clause for constituting the Panchayat for such period.

(4) A Panchayat constituted upon the dissolution of a Panchayat before the expiration of its duration shall continue only for the remainder of the period for which the dissolved Panchayat would have continued under clause (1) had it not been so dissolved.

243F. Disqualifications for membership.-(1) A person shall be disqualified for being chosen as, and for being, a member of a Panchayat-

(a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:

Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years;

(b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State.

(2) If any question arises as to whether a member of a Panchayat has become subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in clause(1), the question shall be referred for the decision of such authority and in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.

243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.- Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to-

(a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice;

(b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.

243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.-The Legislature of a State may, by law,-

(a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes ,duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits;

(b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits;

(c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State; and

(d) provide for Constitution of such Funds for crediting all money received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such moneys therefrom,

as may be specified in the law.

243-I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.-(1) The Governor of a State shall, as soon as may be within one year from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992, and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year, constitute a Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendations to the Governor as to-

(a) the principles which should govern-
(i) the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the netproceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State,which may be divided between them under this Part and the allocationbetween the Panchayats at all levels of their respective shares ofsuch proceeds;

(ii) the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which maybe assigned to, or appropriated by, the Panchayat;

(iii) the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fundof the State;

(b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of thePanchayats;

(c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by theGovernor in the interests of sound finance of the Panchayats.

(2) The Legislature of a State may, by law, provide for thecomposition of the commission, the qualifications which shall berequisite for appointment as members thereof and the manner in whichthey shall be selected.

(3) The Commission shall determine their procedure and shall have suchpowers in the performance of their functions as the Legislature of theState may, by law, confer on them.

(4) The Governor shall cause every recommendation made by the Commission under this article together with an explanatory memorandumas to the action taken thereon to be laid before the Legislature of the State.

243J. Audit of accounts of Panchayats.- The Legislature of a State may, by law, make provisions with respect to the maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats and the auditing of such accounts.

243K. Elections to the Panchayats.-(1) The superintendence, direction and control of the preparation of electoral rolls for, and the conduct of, all elections to the Panchayats shall be vested in a State Election Commission consisting of a State Election Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor.
(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of a State, the conditions of service and tenure of office of the State Election Commissioner shall be such as the Governor may by rule determine:

Provided that the State Election Commissioner shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of a High Court and the conditions of service of the State Election Commissioner shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.

(3) The Governor of a State shall, when so requested by the State Election Commission, make available to the State Election Commission such staff as may be necessary for the discharge of the functions conferred on the State Election Commission by clause (1).

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, make provision with respect to all matters relating to, or in connection with, elections to the Panchayats.

243L. Application to Union territories.-The provisions of this Part shall apply to the Union territories and shall, in their application to a Union territory, have effect as if the references to the Governor of a State were references to the Administrator of the Union territory appointed under article 239 and references to the Legislature or the Legislative Assembly of a State were references, in relation to a Union territory having a Legislative Assembly, to that Legislative Assembly:
Provided that the President may, by public notification, direct that the provisions of this Part shall apply to any Union territory or part there of subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification.

243M. Part not to apply to certain areas.-(1) Nothing in this Part shall apply to the Scheduled Areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas referred to in clause (2), of article 244.

(2) Nothing in this Part shall apply to-

(a) the States of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram;

(b) the Hill Areas in the State of Manipur for which District Councilsexist under any law for the time being in force.

(3) Nothing in this Part-

(a) relating to Panchayats at the district level shall apply to thehill areas of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengalfor which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists under any law for thetime being in force;

(b) shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of theDarjeeling Gorkha Hill Council constituted under such law.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,-

(a) the Legislature of a State referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause(2) may, by law, extend this Part to that State, except the areas, if any, referred to in clause (1), if the Legislative Assembly of that State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting;

(b) Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.-Notwithstanding anything in this Part, any provision of any law relating to Panchayats in force in a State immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992, which is inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall continue to be in force until amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority or until the expiration of one year from such commencement, whichever is earlier:

Provided that all the Panchayats existing immediately before such commencement shall continue till the expiration of their duration, unless sooner dissolved by a resolution passed to that effect by the Legislative Assembly of that State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, by each House of the Legislature of that State.

243-O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.-Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,-

(a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies, madeor purporting to be made under article 243K, shall not be called in question in any court;

(b) no election to any Panchayat shall be called in question except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner asis provided for by or under any law made by the Legislature of a State.'.

Constitution, after sub-clause (b), the following sub-clause shall be inserted, namely:-

"(bb) the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the Panchayats in the State on the basis of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the State;".

11th Schedule was added:-
"ELEVENTH SCHEDULE
(Article 243G)

1. Agriculture, including agricultural extension.
2. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, landconsolidation and soil conservation.
3. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development.
4. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry.
5. Fisheries.
6. Social forestry and farm forestry.
7. Minor forest produce.
8. Small scale industries, including food processing industries.
9. Khadi, village and cottage industries.
10. Rural housing.
11. Drinking water.
12. Fuel and fodder.
13. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means ofcommunication.
14. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity.
15. Non-conventional energy sources.
16. Poverty alleviation programme.
17. Education, including primary and secondary schools.
18. Technical training and vocational education.
19. Adult and non-formal education.
20. Libraries.
21. Cultural activities.
22. Markets and fairs.
23. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary healthcentres and dispensaries.
24. Family welfare.
25. Women and child development.
26. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentallyretarded.
27. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of theScheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
28. Public distribution system.
29. Maintenance of community assets.".

Thursday, December 24, 2020

Branches of Science

Branch          Related study

Aerodynamics The study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created

Aeronautics Science of flight of airplanes.

Agronomy Science dealing with crop plant.

Anatomy The study of the structure and organization of living things

Angiology Deals with the study of blood vascular system.

Anthology Study of flower.

Anthropology The study of human cultures both past and present. Study of apes and man.

Apiculture Honey industries (Bee Keeping).

Araneology Study of spiders.

Archaeology The study of the material remains of cultures

Astronomy The study of celestial objects in the universe. Study of heavenly bodies.

Astrophysics The study of the physics of the universe

Bacteriology The study of bacteria in relation to disease

Batracology Study of frogs.

Biochemistry The study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms

Biology The science that studies living organisms

Biophysics The application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology

Biotechnology Deals with the use of micro-organisms in commercial processes for producing fine chemicals such as drugs; vaccines; hormones, etc. on a large scale.

Botany The scientific study of plant life

Cardiology Study of heart.

Chemical Engineering The application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms

Chemistry The science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself

Climatology The study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes

Computer Science The systematic study of computing systems and computation

Craniology Study of skulls.

Cryogenics Study concerning with the application and uses of very low temperature.

Cryptography Study of secret writing.

Cytology Study of cells.

Dermatology Study of skin.

Ecology The study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment

Electronics Science and technology of electronic phenomena

Engineering The practical application of science to commerce or industry

Entomology The study of insects

Environmental Science The science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment

Etiology Study of cause of insects.

Eugenics Study of improvment of human race by applying laws of heredity. it is related with future generations.

Evolution Deals with the study of origin of new from old.

Exbiology Deals with life or possibilities of life beyond the earth.

Floriculture Study of flower yielding plants.

Forestry The science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources

Genetics The science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms

Geology The Study of science of the earth, its structure, and history

Gerontology study of growing old.

Gynaecology Study of female reproductive organs.

Haematology Study of blood.

Hepatology Study of liver.

Horticulture Study of garden cultivation.

Iconography Teachings by pictures and models.

Immunology Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection.

Jurisprudence Science of law.

Kalology Study of human beauty.

Lexicography Compiling of dictionary.

Marine Biology The study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems

Mathematics A science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement

Medicine The science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease

Meteorology Study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting

Microbiology The study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes

Mineralogy The study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals

Molecular Biology The study of biology at a molecular level

Mycology Study of fungi.

Myology Study of muscles.

Nephrology Study of kidneys.

Neurology The branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders

Nuclear Physics The branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom

Numismatics Study of coins and medals.

Obstetrics Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy.

Oceanography Study of the earth’s oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes

Omithology Study of birds.

Oneirology Study of dreams.

Ophthalmology Study of eyes .

Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds

Ornithology The study of birds

Osteology Study of bones.

Paleontology The study of life-forms existing in former geological time periods

Pathology Study of disease causing organisms.

Pedology Stydy of soils.

Petrology The geological and chemical study of rocks

Philately Stamp collecting.

Philology Study of languages.

Phonetics Concerning the sounds of a language.

Phycology Study of algae.

Physics The study of the behavior and properties of matter

Physiography Natural phenomenon.

Physiology The study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms

Pisciculture Study of fish.

Pomology Study of fruits.

Psychology Study of the mind and behaviour

Radiology The branch of medicine dealing with the applications of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes

Seismology The study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the earth

Sericulture Silk industry(culture of silk moth and pupa).

Serpentology Study of snakes.

Taxonomy The science of classification of animals and plants

Telepathy Communication between two minds at a distance with the help of emotions, thoughts and feelings.

Thermodynamics The physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes

Toxicology The study of poisons and the effects of poisoning

Virology Study of virus.

Zoology The study of animals