Tuesday, June 30, 2020

36th ASEAN summit

ASEAN(Association of South East Asian Nations)

It was established on 8 August ,1967 in Bangkok with the signing of ASEAN Declaration.

Nations that have founded ASEAN are - Indonesia,Thailand,Malaysia,Singapore,Philippines.

Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Vietnam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

Currently ,10 countries are members of ASEAN.

ASEAN secretariat is at Jakarta.

ASEAN summit is held by member countries biannually.


Chairmanship of ASEAN rotates annually, based on the alphabetical order of  the English names of Member States.

1st ASEAN Summit was held in Bali,Indonesia on 23-24 February ,1976.

36th ASEAN summit was held in Hanoi,Vietnam  on 26 June ,2020.It was held via  video conference. It was chaired by Vietnam.

Focus of summit was on Covid -19,post Covid -19 recovery and further cooperation with member countries.

 Addressing the opening ceremony of the summit, Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc said he expected the summit to be an opportunity to "once again affirm the strong solidarity, political will, and determination of ASEAN member countries to overcome difficulties, to determinedly head forward"


Theme - "Cohesive and Responsive ASEAN".

Important outcomes of ASEAN summit -

1.ASEAN Covid -19 response fund will be established.

2.A reserve will be set up to meet medical supplies to meet urgent needs during Covid -19.

3.To build ASEAN standard procedures of epidemic response for health emergency.

Ref:- https://asean.org/

Monday, June 29, 2020

Internet of Things (IoT)

Introduction -

 Internet of Things is concept of connecting any device to the Internet and to other connected devices.
It is a large network of connected things and people in which all devices collect and share data about the way they are used and about the environment around them.It allows devices to interact, collaborate and, learn from each other’s experiences just like humans do.
This includes large number of devices of different size and shapes like wearable fitness bands that measures number of steps in a walk or heart rate ,self driving cars whose sensors detect objects in the road.

How does IoT work?

Devices have built in sensors which are connected to an IoT platform, which combines data from various devices and applies analytics to deliver the most useful information with applications built to address particular needs.
These IoT platforms segregate useful information .This information can be used to make recommendations , detect patterns and detect possible issues before they occur.

Example of IoT application -

Let us imagine an intelligent device such as a traffic camera. The camera can observe the streets for traffic congestion,weather conditions,accidents and communicate this data to a common gateway. This gateway also receives data from other such cameras and relays the information further to a city-wide traffic monitoring system.

IoT in Smart Traffic - IoT Applications - Edureka

Now,for example, the Municipal Corporation decides to repair road. This may cause a traffic congestion on the way to a national highway. This insight is sent to the city-wide traffic monitoring system.

Now, considering this is a smart traffic system, it quickly learns and predicts patterns in traffic, with the use of Machine Learning. The smart system can, thus, analyze the situation, predict its impact and relay the information to other cities that connect to the same highway via their own respective smart systems.

The Traffic Management System can analyze data acquired and derive routes around the project to avoid bottlenecks. The system could also pass on live instructions to drivers through smart devices and radio channels.In the meantime the city schools and workplaces near the project could also be called to adapt their time table.

Use of IoT in various areas -

1.Smart home applications
2.Wearables like fitness band.
3.Smart cities
5.Industrial automation

Sunday, June 28, 2020

US -China fight over Covid-19

The Trump administration and the Chinese government are going head to head   over the Coronavirus. Xi Jinping and Donald Trump have an incentive to point the finger at the other guy at the other country and say, look, they're the ones to blame for all of our trouble. Number one, we don't know what the numbers are in China. China tells the numbers and but people just don't believe the numbers. All along, China has acted with openness, transparency, and responsibility. Perhaps no president since Richard Nixon has had China play such a central role in his domestic political narrative. We could cut off the whole relationship. Now, if USA did, what would happen? It would save 500 billion dollars. The two largest economic powers in the world are trying to control the Coronavirus narrative. The White House has accused China of misleading the world in downplaying the true threat of Covid 19.

 Chinese officials have criticized the U.S. for not taking their warnings seriously enough. China has always been open, transparent and responsible and kept reporting information on Covid-19 to WHO, and related countries and regions including the United States. If we had known about this a number of months earlier. It could have been contained to that one area in China where it started. And, certainly the world is paying a big price for what Chinese did. The important thing from the perspective of the Chinese government and therefore the Chinese Communist Party is for Beijing to seize and retain control over the narrative. The primary concerns of the party and Xi Jinping are always, in fact, domestic and a domestic audience.

Donald Trump is also focused on winning over his domestic audience and how the Trump administration handles restarting the economy while balancing relations with China could become a key factor in the 2020 election. His departure from the traditional Republican Party was that he would renegotiate these trade deals that the United States had been had been abused and taken advantage of for decades by poor leadership. Leaders in both countries also need someone else to blame and someone to point the finger at. There's no question there's great power competition between the two countries right now, whether that's on a military level, on an economic level or now on this biological and health level, both nations are trying to be number one on the planet. Here's what's at stake as Trump attempts to take on China over the coronavirus pandemic. Both the Chinese Communist Party and President Trump have accused the other side of mismanaging the coronavirus pandemic. And China and the U.S. still remain at odds over where and how the virus originated. It's very clear that the origin point of this was in China. But the Chinese government has since started to spread all sorts of alternative theories for other locations that it might have started to. China and the U.S. have disputes over the source of the virus. China has been using social media to fire back at the U.S.

 What Trump is most desperate to do right now is to come up with an alternate theory for why he played down the virus so obviously on tape and in interviews throughout January and all February. Now the Democrats are politicizing the coronavirus; and this is their new hoax. But this is really the worst attack we've ever had. This is worse than Pearl Harbour. This is worse than the World Trade Centre. There's never been an attack like this. The president ultimately is saying, look, it's not my fault. We were too slow. It's the Chinese government's fault. And it should have never happened. Covid 19 could have been stopped at the source in China. The virus originated in China. That's not up for debate. And we have questions, unanswered questions the international community does about what happened in those early days. We've seen the United States and China come to blows inside international organizations that we would have expected to function more effectively during this crisis. So we've seen the United States scuttled statements essentially out of theG7 and the U.S. and China disagreeing might lying in the U.N. Security Council as both tried to fashion statements about the coronavirus and the way forward as we see more corona virus deaths. And the numbers don't just go up, but they touch more and more people. A friend and a family member, a co-worker, you will see a battle over who to blame, how to target that anger. We have actively responded to the concerns of all the parties and strengthened cooperation with them.

 China has won time and made positive contributions to the global battle against the epidemic. We know that this is a global pandemic and this is the time for every country to work together to resolve that. To do that, you have to be honest and transparent. Over the last two years, the trade war between China and the U.S. has inflamed tensions between the two governments. The Chinese accused the U.S. of unfair tariffs on Chinese goods, and the U.S. side argued that China was cheating the international system through unfair trade practices and an institutionalized system of intellectual copyright theft. A truce in the trade war appeared in mid-January 2020, when the U.S. and China agreed to eliminate unfair trade practices and also to remove tariffs put in place by the Trump administration. This January, he finally signed the phase one of this China trade deal and more than almost anything else for his domestic political audience. This is a promise made. promise kept. As the Phase one trade agreement was being signed however, the outbreak of Coronavirus in China was raging. How the Trump administration and China react to the pandemic could affect the more than seven hundred and thirty billion in trade at stake between the two nations and the fate of the next stage of U.S. China trade talks. Well, the big question is what happens with the trade relationship? China and the United States have both taken some of the preliminary actions as part of this Phase one deal. What they really look like in practice are some import export changes to rules about meat that can be exported or vegetables that can be imported. They're buying a lot off arm products, but are they buying to the level that they were supposed to? They were going to buy 50 billion dollars worth. Coronavirus has changed everything. It's changed the economic situations of both countries. And right now, Trump is waiting to see if China will fulfil its obligation. I think that we're long overdue for a decoupling of sorts. You want to be careful that just because something is made in China doesn't mean that that's necessarily a bad thing. Trade is mutually beneficial. The catch is when something is a national strategic resource, such as cyber components or, you know, in this case, necessary medical supplies during a pandemic. You want to be careful about that. President Trump proclaimed the equalization processed with China over a year ago and the rest of the world didn't really respond very much to that. But Covid-19 has completely disrupted the global supply chain. It's simply a fact that China spawned that virus. That is a fact. China hid that virus for about two months. That is a fact behind the shield of the world trade.

World Health Organization, prominent Republicans such as Josh Hawley and Tom Cotton have pushed for the United States to end its dependence on China for cheap retail products, technology and pharmaceuticals. And the Covid-19 outbreak has given even more fuel to this group of lawmakers. USA is going to see that process of decoupling not as signed by Donald Trump, but being pushed forward in a haphazard way in response to the way how the Chinese government has been responding to the crisis, a lot of people have sort of abandoned the idea months ago that there would be a phase two.  Coronavirus really puts the nail in the coffin and the idea that there would be any more phases to the trade deal, phase one is all USA is going to get at this point. I think the positions of people like Tom Cotton and Josh Hawley probably more closely resemble the Republican Party as a whole and even the nation as a whole when you look at both Democrats and Republicans. The polling suggests that the public really is souring on China, whether it's trade negotiations, but it's more about the coronavirus and the questions that remain and the frustration as the number of casualties, rate rises and people are left with a great anger about what happened. I think that U.S. China relations will sort of be used as a Rorschach test by leaders on both sides of the aisle. That is, if you already saw U.S. China relations as highly competitive and you already believe that the United States needed to decouple from China reducing its supply chain exposure, putting up protectionist measures, you're probably likely to see that as all the more true in this environment.

 Hopefully they're going to keep the deal. We'll see. They may not want to find out. The trade negotiations with China were already a key focus leading up to the2020 presidential election. Now, with a pandemic and high unemployment rocking the United States, trade is more important than ever. United States putting taxes on other countries where they've taken advantage, especially China. In the last Democratic presidential debate before Super Tuesday. A surprise policy issue appeared coronavirus. What I would do immediately is to restore the funding. He cut the funding for CDC. He(Donald Trump) tried to cut the funding for NIH. Democratic opponents went after President Trump's management of the Covid 19 outbreak, accusing him of failing to act quickly enough to slow the spread of Covid 19 within the US Democratic political action committees latched on to President Trump's actions and started their own public campaign to amplify what they saw as a slow and catastrophic response. The Democrats have their own challenge, and it's, the way to see it most clearly is to look at the campaign of Joe Biden. The warning signs were mounting in January, he was raising the alarm back then and so were others, including the intelligence the federal intelligence community. And as he's become the presumptive nominee. One of his very first ads was slamming Trump on China The U.S. already has more reported deaths from Covid-19 than any other country, and the economic damage continues to take its toll on the average American as the number of unemployed continues to rise. The president has been talking about this idea of extracting some kind of punishment from the Chinese for allowing the coronavirus to spread. How that would look, whether it would be enforceable, what the United States could even get out of that is anybody's guess at this point. But the question is whether the president pushes for that right now. We're up to, what, close to 10 trillion dollars we've had to appropriate in order to fight this this battle. So what's it look? The bill has to come due for China. I think one of the things you've got to look at is the motivation for Donald Trump and Xi Jinping to point the finger at the other guy and the other country. That's all about domestic politics, both in China and in the United States. Both leaders have a real political incentive to point the finger and place blame elsewhere, particularly in the United States as we're in this election year and dealing with the November election just around the corner now. Some in the U.S. have advocated for legal action against China over the outbreak.


There exists no forum and no legal structure under which United States can seek reparations or financial recovery for a pandemic. And the state of Missouri has already filed a civil lawsuit against China in federal court. However, China's protected against lawsuits by sovereign immunity in response to this legal protection Senator Tom Cotton and Representative Dan Crenshaw recently introduced legislation that would allow Americans to sue China in federal court. U.S. politicians should stop shirking responsibilities and shifting blame. The U.S. Senate recently passed a bill that would require Chinese firms to be audited by U.S. regulators in order to be listed on U.S. stock exchanges. The virus and the pandemic spread are likely to collapse domestic and international policy because it is such a clear moment at which interconnectedness, globalization and U.S. China relations. But also U.S. relations with so many other countries will come to the fore as measures of United States preparedness for reactions to this historic pandemic threat. I think U.S. China relations are much more likely to be front and centre in the upcoming election than they were before. Exactly because of the coronavirus pandemic and its knock on effects for the United States and the world. What remains to be seen is whether Biden can communicate to voters in an effective way, how he would approach China in a different way, and whether then, on the other hand, Trump can defend successfully his very combative.


Image source - https://www.cbp.gov/

India -Nepal border dispute (Kalapani issue)

The kind of close relations India has shared with Nepal historically, has not been shared with any other country .Not only can Indians and Nepalese can cross each other's borders without a visa, they can also reside and work in each other's countries but these relations have begun to sour over the past few days and years .
Recently, the Prime Minister of Nepal claimed that India is responsible for the spread of Corona virus in Nepal .Furthermore, the Prime Minister of Nepal has accused India of occupying some area of Nepal.
 A border dispute is brewing between both the countries.

 So what is this border dispute? Why did it start? And who is correct in this scenario- India or Nepal? 
 This controversy surfaced in Indian media when Nepal came out with its new map in May. They came out with a new map of their country and within it, they included an area which they hadn't earlier the area which is under India's control today .If we look at their new map, this area is a triangular shaped disputed area in the north western tip of Nepal .This area is the eastern most tip of Uttarakhand. This entails an area of around 300 square kilometres and the northmost village/place is Limpiyadhura .The south- eastern part of it is Lipulekh pass. Gunji lies in the south west and Kalapani in the south. So this area has been defined on the basis of these three places- Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh and Kalapani .Nepal believes that this area rightfully belongs to Nepal whereas as India believes it is India's .
Before we address the question of who is right and what the history of this land is, 
First, I'd like to tell you that this controversy broke out due to two events which happened around 6 months ago.
1). The first event happened on November 2019 ,Indian government released a new map of India, in which the region of Kalapani was claimed to be under India, which triggered the Nepal government .
2).The second event happened on 8th May, 2020, when the Indian Defense Minister inaugurated a new road .This road was around 80 kilometres along the India- Nepal border through this disputed area uptil Lipulekh .The purpose of this road was to aid the people on the Kailash Mansarovar Yatra as per claims 

Because above this disputed area lies Tibet, where the Kailash Mansarovar is situated. After the inauguration of this road, the Nepal government was upset as they believed that Lipulekh pass comes under Nepal and they also believed that if India had to construct this road, they should have consulted Nepal on this matter and worked out an agreement before doing this. In response to this, the external affairs ministry of India said that this area comes completely under the territory of India and therefore they did not hold a consultation with Nepal. This was not required because they had constructed a road within their own territory .But situations began to go from bad to worse when protests regarding this erupted in Nepal .On 15th May, Army chief of India , said that the protests in Nepal were influenced by China .This further upset the people in Nepal and then the Nepal government released this new map which brought the entire dispute to light.

 So the question is that why is this disputed region actually disputed? And which country does it rightfully belong to? 
Come, let us go through its history first Our story begins in the 1800s, around two hundred years ago, when India was under British rule. The Britishers were trying to expand towards Nepal which was under a kingdom then- The kingdom of Gorkha .A battle took place between the Britishers and the Kingdom of Nepal which is called the Anglo Nepalese war of 1814. This battle raged for two years- until 1816- after which, a treaty was signed known as Treaty of Sugauli- to decide which areas would be controlled by the Britishers and which areas would be controlled by the Kingdom of Nepal. How much area would be assigned to both the countries at that time. According to the treaty of Sugauli, Nepal lost its area of Sikkim and Darjeeling .That area was ceded to the Britishers and two rivers were made use of to define the kingdom of Nepal .The western boundary of Nepal would be along the Mahakali river or Sharda river and the eastern boundary would be along the Mechi river. Even today, if you observe what the eastern and western boundaries of Nepal and India are then they are defined according to these two rivers/ The Nepal- India border runs along the rivers .The problem arises at the Western border of Nepal- if you go along the Mahakali river. The boundary had been defined by a red line in Google maps.

Red line runs along the river .We can see how the entire India-Nepal border has been defined according to this river .As we go upstream, this river flows along. But the problem arises where the river splits into two .Actually, it would be incorrect to say that it splits. While going upstream we see that this river actually comes from two sources .Which source should be chosen to define the border? 
Upon zooming in, we see that clearly, one source appears to be a proper river and the second looks like a rivulet .Common sense suggests that the wider stream of water should be used to define the border as it is a proper river .So in the beginning, this is what the Britishers did. The thicker part of the river, which lies on the west was used to define the border. In the maps drawn by the Britishers, the west river was used to define the border and Nepal got this extra region. The map that we see here was drawn by the Britishers in 1827 .And the British chose the west river to define the boundary in this map .That is, this extra triangular part which the controversy is about, went to the Nepal kingdom .But the story is not so easy .Some years later, the Britishers realized that the extra piece of land that they had ceded to the Nepal kingdom. They needed it as this land held a lot of strategic importance because it would be useful while trading with China. So, some 30-40 years later, in the 1860s, the Britishers changed their maps suddenly with a lot of cunning Almost suddenly, they claimed the eastern river to be the boundary in their maps .So, in this map of 1865 , the eastern river was used by the Britishers as a boundary between British India and the Kingdom of Nepal .The Kingdom of Nepal did not have a problem with this at that time, because it was a small piece of land and it was not of much use from the perspective of Nepal. Almost no one lived there. It was an extremely difficult terrain and only one path crossed through it- the pilgrimage route to reach Mansarovar .So Nepal thought of letting it go as it did not make much of a difference to it. They let the Britishers control it and that was considered as the border from then, until India got its independence from the British rule .And the same border continued to be considered even after India became independent . It became a multiparty democratic country in 1990 .Before that,  monarchy was in power .So even the monarchs of Nepal did not have an issue with this unofficial border .They kept this area out of Nepal while drawing their government maps. When tensions intensified between India and China in the 1960s, which ultimately led to an Indo-China war, then a military post was established by the Indian army in this area .Permission was sought from the Nepal monarchy- which again, did not have a problem with this. They gave permission for this for the protection of India. And ever since then, there is a presence of the Indian army in this area and there are established Indian military posts .1962 onwards, both India and Nepal have been showing Lipulekh and Kalapani in their respective maps .But this is the first time that Nepal has shown the Limpiyadhura region in its map .

The issue of this border dispute first reared its head in the 1990s when democracy came to Nepal .The democratic government was able to finally access the old historical papers to see how their monarchy defined their borders and then they realized that this area should belong to Nepal and ever since then, they have been defining this as a disputed area .
In July 2000, the former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee ji and the then Nepali Prime Minister discussed upon this issue to solve the border dispute .Joint field survey was conducted to figure out where the exact boundary should be in the Kalapani region .But this agreement got clamped in the middle when India refused to withdraw its army presence from there .So discussions could not continue further. 
In May 2015, India and China signed a trade agreement to use the Lipulekh pass as a trade route .And this is the point when the India and Nepal relations began to sour. In 2015, the then Prime Minister of Nepal expressed his displeasure over the issue and showed objection. He claimed that the Kalapani region came under the ambit of Nepal. He protested in relation to this against both India and China .

So the biggest question is who does this disputed area rightfully belong to- India or Nepal? 
To answer this, I'd present the argument of both the sides. Nepal argues that the Sugauli treaty was the last treaty in which both sides were in agreement. After that, there has been no treaty in which both sides are in agreement .And so they would take the Sugauli treaty as a base and on that basis, this area should be theirs because the treaty defines that their western boundary would be along the Mahakali river .And where this river is divided into two, it is clearly visible that the wider river is the Mahakali river and so this area comes under them .
The argument in India's favour is that Nepal said nothing regarding this for so many years. This border has been in use for decades .After the 1860s, this has been the unofficial boundary in use Nepal didn't object then. Neither did the monarch of Nepal have a problem with that so what is the logic behind raising this issue suddenly and raising a dispute for nothing?
 In counter to this, Nepal could argue that democracy came to Nepal in the 1990s. Prior to that, the monarch ruled and he exercised his own will .The people's will was never paid heed to during monarch period. Now that they have democracy, why should they obey the monarch if he agreed to an unofficial boundary? 
Here, another argument in India's favour would be that even after 1990s, when Nepal had become democratic, Nepal had not declared the Limpiyadhura under it for so many years. So what changed so suddenly that it called for a new political map? 
So these are the arguments of both the sides. 
According to me, viewed geographically, then Nepal is correct in this situation .If we go according to the Sugauli treaty, which states that the western boundary of Nepal would be defined according to the Mahakali river .So it is quite clear that where the river is divided into two, the western river is the bigger one and that should be used as a boundary. And according to this logic, Nepal is right But if this situation is viewed practically and historically, then India is right, in my opinion .This region should belong to India because the British too have been using this as a boundary since 1860s .And if the monarchs of Nepal did not have an issue with it and this unofficial border was in use since many years So if suddenly Nepal begins to claim that they want the 100 year old border, then it doesn't make any sense If every country begins to behave this way, then things will not work out. 
 There must be so many such countries and borders across the world where things were different earlier but something new has been set now .
Thirdly, if you think logically, then this controversy should not have arisen .The border between India and Nepal is for namesake. Indians and Nepalis can anyway cross the border without a visa or passport and can reside and work there. So what would be so special about the disputed area? The Nepalis and the Indians can live and work there even today if they wish to. Both the Nepalis and the Indians can use the road which has been constructed .So what is the controversy about, then? Only about representing it on their political maps .One thing I do concede here is that the Indian government should have been more friendly with the government of Nepal .Talks about the construction of the road could have been held with Nepal prior to constructing it and that both countries would benefit from it that the road was being constructed for their pilgrims of the Mansarovar and that this place was also of strategic importance to them .
So an agreement could be reached together .But what is happening today is that Indians are making fun of Nepalis on social media and abusing them Nepalis are writing hate comments against Indians .Some Indian politicians are saying that these Nepalis have been sold off to China .The Prime Minister of Nepal said that the Indian virus was deadlier than the Corona virus .A friendship cannot be maintained among both the countries in this manner. And a friendship is essential because Indians and Nepalis are so integrated with one another .Think about it- so many Nepalis are employed even in the Indian army I'd also like to talk about the point of China once Some Indians say that the Chinese have bought over the Nepalis because the ruling party in Nepal at present is a communist party and since there is also a ruling Communist party in China, it is being said that a Chinese influence is being exerted on Nepal .
It might be true to some extent in the rest of the issues .
Reasons of dispute are as follows:-
1. First of all, when there was a trade agreement between India and China in 2015, regarding the Lipulekh region then Nepal had protested against both the countries. And India and China were forming relations with one another while Nepal was against both of them. 
2. The second reason is that the opposition party in Nepal holds the same opinion regarding this issue that the ruling party adheres to .Almost all the parties there are united over this issue. They believe this area to be theirs .
In the end, I'd only like to say that I hope that these two countries solve this issue through discussions. This is very important because the connection/relation between Indians and Nepalis is very strong and deep. Several Nepalis work in India and under the Indian government as well as in the army. Both sides would have to remain sensitive while solving this issue and would have to understand one another and understand each other's perspectives so that a solution can be worked out.

Map pic source -Google maps

Saturday, June 27, 2020

P M Narendra Modi launched Atma Nirbhar Uttar Pradesh Rojgar Abhiyan

P M Narendra Modi virtually launched Atma Nirbhar Uttar Pradesh Rojgar                                  Abhiyan on 26 June .

Aim – To provide jobs, promote local entrepreneurship and to create partnerships

with industries to generate employment opportunities for migrant workers who

have returned to Uttar Pradesh from other states during Covid -19 lockdown.

This is part of Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyan which was launched by PM on June 20

Across 6 states. Under this scheme, employment will be provided to migrant

workers and persons who lost employment due to Covid -19 lockdown for 125 day.

Under this scheme 1.25 Cr. persons would be employed in Uttar Pradesh out

of which 60 lakh persons will be provided employment in rural areas and 40 lakh

persons will be provided employment by Micro Small and Medium Enterprises(MSME’s).

PM Narendra Modi interacted with people of 6 districts of Uttar Pradesh

through Common Service Centres and Krishi Vigyan Kendras.

This scheme will cover 31 districts of Uttar Pradesh in which total number of

migrant workers who returned home due to lockdown is more than 30 lakh.

Link for Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan -Special scheme for migrant workers


Friday, June 26, 2020

26 June - International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking

The United Nations General Assembly decided to observe 26 June as 
International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking by 
resolution 42/112 of 7 December  1987.This day is observed as an
expression of its determination to strengthen action and cooperation
to accomplish the goal of an international society free of drug abuse.

Aim -
To raise awareness of the major problem that illegal drugs represent 
to society

Theme for 2020 -
"Better knowledge for better care".
It emphasizes the need to improve the understanding of the world 
drug problem and how better knowledge will promote greater
international cooperation for offsetting its impact on                                                                          governance,health and security.

Some 35.6 million people suffer from drug use disorders globally,                                                    according to the World Drug Report 2020 by the United Nations                                                      Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

Around 269 million people used drugs in 2018, up 30 per cent                                                                  from 2009. While the increase reflects population growth and                                                              other factors, illicit drugs - including opiates and pharmaceutical                                                    opioids, cocaine and methamphetamine - are still more available,                                                            more diverse and more potent than before, challenging law                                                               enforcement, posing greater health risks and complicating                                                                        efforts to prevent and treat drug use disorders.

Adolescents and young adults account for the largest share                                                                        of those using drugs. Of the 11 million people who inject                                                                        drugs, half of them are living with hepatitis C, and 1.4 million                                                              with HIV.

Only one out of eight people who need drug-related treatment                                                          receive it. One out of three drug users is a woman but women                                                                     represent only one out of five people in treatment. People in                                                                      prison settings, minorities, immigrants and displaced people                                                                 also face barriers to treatment due to discrimination and stigma.

585,000 died in 2017 in relation to drug use, up one-quarter                                                                       from 2008. Over the past decade, the total number of deaths                                                                     due to opioid use disorders went up 71 percent, with a 92 percent                                                     increase among women compared with 63 percent among men.

All over the world, we see that risks and consequences of drug                                                              use are worsened by poverty, limited opportunities for education                                                           and jobs, stigma and social exclusion, which in turn helps to                                                                        deepen inequalities, moving us further away from achieving                                                                 the Sustainable Development Goals.

The COVID-19 crisis has intensified these challenges further                                                               still, overwhelming health systems and exposing the fragility                                                                     of institutions and social safety nets. 

Health-centred, rights-based and gender-responsive approaches                                                                  to drug use and related diseases deliver better public health,                                                                   and we need to do more to share this learning and support                                                                 implementation, most of all in developing countries.

Governments pledged to advance such balanced, comprehensive                                                          and evidence-based responses in the 2019 CND Ministerial                                                               Declaration. In the COVID-19 recovery, we need all                                                                      countries to act on their commitments, and show shared                                                               responsibility to tackle illicit drug supply and reduce demand.                                                                We need civil society and youth organizations to continue their                                                           efforts to support the vulnerable in their communities.

Together, we can pursue more effective prevention and                                                                  protection, to build resilience as we build back better,                                                                             and leave no one behind.

Source - https://www.unodc.org/unodc/press/releases/2020/June/executive-directors-message-on-international-day-against-drug-abuse-and-illicit-trafficking.html

Image source- https://www.un.org/en/observances/end-drug-abuse-day

Private sector participation in space sector allowed by Goverment

Reforms in space sector allowing private sector participation in  
entire range has been approved by Union Cabinet chaired by 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi.This decision has been taken to 
make India self reliant in long term.

1.Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre(IN-SPACe)
has been formed to provide equal opportunity to private sector companies
for using Indian space infrastructure.This is part of reforms announced
by Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman in May,2020.
IN-SPACe will hand hold ,guide and promote private sector industries
in space activities through motivating policies and friendly statutory 

2.The government said "The Public Sector Enterprise ‘New Space 
India Limited (NSIL)’ will endeavour to re-orient space activities
from a ‘supply driven’model to a ‘demand driven’ model, 
thereby ensuring optimum utilization of our space assets."

With these reforms, ISRO can focus more on new technologies,
research and development activities,exploration mission and
human spaceflight programme.Few of the planetary 
exploration missions will also be opened to private sector 
through an 'announcement of opportunity' mechanism.

According to ISRO Chairman K Sivan, NSIL was formed 
to carry forward the industry production of space systems and 
the ISRO's effort in realising Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV)
from industry.

Thursday, June 25, 2020

Recent series of investments in Jio platforms


List of investments made by various investors in Jio Platforms :-


Deal Value(in Rs. Cr.)







Silver Lake Partners




Vista Equity Partners




General Atlantic



17 MAY

KKR Asia PE Fund



22 MAY





Silver Lake Partners




AbuDhabi Investment Authority




TPG (Pvt. Equity firm)




Catterton (Pvt. Equity firm)








Series of deals were conducted between global investors and Reliance Jio Platforms .First deal was conducted between Reliance Jio and Facebook on 22 April,2020. Total amount of investments received by Jio Platforms is  Rs. 1,15,693 Crore.

Reasons behind Jio seeking investments are:-

1.To reduce debt and increase overall profitability.

2.Dilution of equity at high valuation.

Jio Platforms is a gen. next technology platform focussed on providing high quality and affordable digital services across India.Jio has more than 388 million subscribers.

Jio platforms span across broadband connectivity, smart devices ,big data analytics, cloud computing ,artificial intelligence, Internet of Things(Iot) etc.

Global investors will get strong foothold in one of the largest consumer market in world through a truly diversified ecosystem.


Data source :- https://www.financialexpress.com/industry/mukesh-ambani-reliance-industries-saudi-arabia-investment-into-jio-platforms-after-facebook/1995900/

Logo source -https://logos-download.com/8198-jio-logo-download.html