Wednesday, September 30, 2020

Suspension of an MP and Revocation of a MP's suspension in India

1.What is the reason for suspending an MP in the Lok Sabha?

A. The general principle is that it is the role and duty of the Speaker of Lok Sabha to maintain order so that the House can function smoothly. This is a daunting task even at the best of times.

B. In order to ensure that proceedings are conducted in the proper manner, the Speaker is empowered to force a Member to withdraw from the House (for the remaining part of the day), or to place him/her under suspension.


2.What are the rules under which the Speaker acts?

A. Rule Number 373 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business says: “The Speaker, if is of the opinion that the conduct of any Member is grossly disorderly, may direct such Member to withdraw immediately from the House for the remainder of the day’s sitting.”

B. To deal with more recalcitrant Members, the Speaker may take recourse to Rules 374 and 374A of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business.

Rule Number 374 is invoked by Speaker for suspending the member from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session in the event of disregarding the authority of the Chair or abusing the rules of the House by persistently and wilfully obstructing the business by that member.

Rule Number 374A is invoked by Speaker for automatic suspension of member of the House – for five consecutive sittings or the remainder of the session, whichever is less in the event of grave disorder occasioned by a Member.

What is the procedure for revocation of a Member’s suspension?

A. While the Speaker is empowered to place a Member under suspension, the authority for revocation of this order is not vested in him. It is for the House, if it so desires, to resolve on a motion to revoke the suspension.


What happens in Rajya Sabha?

A. Like the Speaker in Lok Sabha, the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is empowered under Rule Number 255 of its Rule Book to “direct any Member whose conduct is in his opinion grossly disorderly to withdraw immediately” from the House for remainder of the day.

B. Unlike the Speaker, however, the Rajya Sabha Chairman does not have the power to suspend a Member.

C.The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha may “name a Member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing” business of the house. In such situation, the Rajya Sabha may adopt a motion suspending the Member (who disregarded the authority of the Chair or abused the rules of the Council by persistently and wilfully obstructing business) from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session.

D.The Rajya Sabha may, however, by another motion, terminate the suspension.


📝Thus, Chairman of Rajya Sabha does neither have the power of suspension nor have the power of revocation of it.



Saturday, September 5, 2020

Niti Aayog has released draft Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture(DEPA)

 NITI Aayog has released draft Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture (DEPA) which aims to promote greater user control on data sharing.

Imp. Points-

Features: 

  1. DEPA will be empowering individuals with control over their personal data, by operationalising a regulatory, institutional, and technology design for secure data sharing.
  2. DEPA is designed as an evolvable and agile framework for good data governance.
  3. DEPA empowers people to seamlessly and securely access their data and share it with third party institutions.
  4. The consent given under DEPA will be free, informed, specific, clear, and revocable.

Consent Managers:

 DEPA’s Institutional Architecture will involve the creation of new market players known as User Consent Managers. These will ensure that individuals can provide consent as per an innovative digital standard for every data shared. These Consent Managers will also work to protect data rights.

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) issued a Master Directive creating Consent Managers in the financial sector to be known as Account Aggregators (AAs). A non-profit collective or alliance of these players is created called the DigiSahamati Foundation.

Open APIs: 

Open Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) enable seamless and encrypted flow of data between data providers and data users through a consent manager.

Implementation:

 RBI, SEBI, IRDAI, PFRDA and the Ministry of Finance will implement this model. This regulatory foundation is also expected to evolve with time (eg. with the forthcoming Data Protection Authority envisaged under Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019).

Background:

  •  Regulatory direction on data privacy, protection, consent, and the new financial institutions required for DEPA’s application in the financial sector was provided through
  • Supreme Court Judgement on the fundamental Right to Privacy in 2017.
  • Personal Data Protection Bill (PDP), 2019.
  • Justice Srikrishna Committee Report, 2018.
  • RBI Master Direction on NBFC-Account Aggregators, 2016 (for the financial sector).
  • Recently, a government committee headed by Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan has suggested that non-personal data generated in India be allowed to be harnessed by various domestic companies and entities.

Application:-

Financial sector:

  • Using DEPA, individuals and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) can use their digital footprints to access not just affordable loans, but also insurance, savings, and better financial management products.
  • The framework is expected to become functional for the financial sector starting fall 2020.
  • It will help in greater financial inclusion and economic growth.
  • Flow based lending: If portability and control of data could allow an MSME owner to digitally share proof of the business’ regular tax (GST) payments or receivables invoices easily, a bank could design and offer working capital loans based on demonstrated ability to repay (known as flow based lending) rather than only offering bank loans backed by assets or collateral.

Telecom Sector:

 DEPA is also being launched in the telecom sector following a Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) consultation report on privacy released in July 2018.

Government Departments: 

The first major government department to become a Government Information Provider will be Goods and Services Tax (GST).

In future, departments with data on individuals and MSMEs could adopt the specifications to improve the ease of doing business or create greater data portability of individual education, jobs, or transaction data.

Healthcare: 

National Health Authority which has been tasked with implementing the National Digital Health Mission, is piloting the DEPA architecture for healthcare data.

Skill: 

The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is encouraging adoption of a digital skill credential that could be used to address low data portability in employment by sharing verified information on work experience or educational training.


Advantages:

  1. Opening up an API-based data sharing framework would bring significant innovation by new fintech entities.
  2. This architecture replaces costly and cumbersome data access and sharing practices that disempower individuals, such as physical submission, username/password sharing, and terms and conditions forms providing blanket consent etc.
  3. Individuals and small firms do not benefit from individual’s data right now. DEPA will provide individuals and small businesses with the practical means to access, control, and selectively share personal data that they have stored across multiple institutional datasets – to maximise the benefits of data sharing for individual empowerment whilst minimising privacy risks and data misuse.
  4. It will also enable better personal financial management services, wealth management, robo advisory, or different types of lending, insurance, and investment use cases and products that one may not be able to foresee today.
Source -Indian Express


Friday, September 4, 2020

Mission Karmayogi

The Union Cabinet has approved ‘Mission Karmayogi’ - the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB).

It is meant to be a comprehensive post-recruitment reform of the Centre’s human resource development. 

Imp. Points-

Aim & Objective:-

1.To build a future-ready civil service with the right attitude, skills and knowledge, aligned to the vision of New India.

2.To prepare Indian civil servants for the future by making them more creative, constructive, imaginative, proactive, innovative, progressive, professional, energetic, transparent, and technology-enabled.

3.Comprehensive reform of the capacity building at the individual, institutional and process levels for efficient public service delivery.

Reason for Mission Karmayogi:

1.At present bureaucracy is facing challenges like- Rule orientation, political interference, inefficiency with promotions, and generalist and specialist conflict.

2.To change the status quo of civil services and bring about the long pending civil services reforms.

3.The capacity of Civil Services plays a vital role in rendering a wide variety of services, implementing welfare programs and performing core governance functions.

Features of the scheme:-

1.Tech-Aided: The capacity building will be delivered through iGOT Karmayogi digital platform, with content drawn from global best practices.

2.The platform will act as a launchpad for the National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB).

3.Coverage: The scheme will cover 46 lakh central government employees, at all levels, and involve an outlay of Rs. 510 crores over a five-year period.

4.Shift from Rules to Roles: The programme will support a transition from “rules-based to roles-based” Human Resource Management (HRM) so that work allocations can be done by matching an official’s competencies to the requirements of the post.

5.Apart from domain knowledge training, the scheme will focus on “functional and behavioural competencies” as well, and also includes a monitoring framework for performance evaluations.

6.Integrated Initiative: Eventually, service matters such as confirmation after probation period, deployment, work assignments and notification of vacancies will all be integrated into the proposed framework.

Governance Structure:

  • Human Resource Council: NPCSCB will be governed by the Prime Minister’s Human Resource Council, which will also include state Chief Ministers, Union Cabinet ministers, and experts.
  • This council will approve and review civil service capacity building programmes.
  • Cabinet Secretary Coordination Unit: There will be a Cabinet Secretary Coordination Unit comprising select secretaries and cadre controlling authorities.
  • Capacity Building Commission: Also, there will be a Capacity Building Commission, which will include experts in related fields and global professionals. This commission will prepare and monitor annual capacity building plans and audit human resources available in the government.
  • Special Purpose Vehicle: Finally, there will be a wholly-owned Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), which will govern the iGOT-Karmayogi platform.
  • It will be set up under Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013.
  • The SPV will be a “not-for-profit” company and will own and manage the iGOT-Karmayogi platform.
  • The SPV will create and operationalize the content, market place and manage key business services of the iGOT-Karmayogi platform, relating to content validation, independent proctored assessments and telemetry data availability.
  • The SPV will own all Intellectual Property Rights on behalf of the Government of India.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation Framework: An appropriate monitoring and evaluation framework will also be put in place for performance evaluation of all users of the iGOT-Karmayogi platform so as to generate a dashboard view of Key Performance Indicators.

To conclude, the ultimate aim of Mission Karmayogi is to ensure “Ease of Living” for the common man, “Ease of Doing Business” and Citizen-Centricity that is reducing the gap between the government and the citizens. This can only be achieved by regular and constructive involvement by the government and civil servants.

Source IE


Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Spot Robot

Researchers from Boston Dynamics, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT - USA) have developed a robot, called ‘Spot’.

They have planned to use it for patients with Covid-19 symptoms.

Important points:-

1.The robot is controlled by a handheld device.

2.It can walk on four legs, similarly to a dog, climbs stairs and can traverse rough terrain with ease and small enough to be used indoors.

3.It can measure skin temperature, breathing rate, pulse rate, and blood oxygen saturation in healthy patients, from 2 metres away.

4.It has four cameras — one infrared, three monochrome.

Working:

  • Body Temperature: The infrared camera measures skin temperature on the face.
  • An algorithm then correlates the facial skin temperature with core body temperature.
  • Breathing Rate: When a patient wearing a mask breathes, their breath changes the temperature of the mask.
  • The infrared camera measures this temperature change, enabling researchers to calculate the breathing rate.
  • Pulse Rate & Oxygen Level: When haemoglobin binds to oxygen and flows through blood vessels, it results in slight changes in colour.
  • These changes are measured with the help of the three monochrome cameras, which filter lights of three different wavelengths.
  • Using these measurements, the algorithm calculates pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation.

Benefits of robot:

1.The robot can be deployed in areas where suspected cases of Covid-19 assemble. Healthcare workers can avoid exposing themselves to risk, by manoeuvring the robot to wherever patients are sitting.

2.The robot can also carry a tablet that allows doctors to ask patients about their symptoms without being in the same room.

Source: Indian Express